This article reflects v3.4 and has not yet been revised

Database Abstraction Layer

Phalcon\Db is the component behind Phalcon\Mvc\Model that powers the model layer in the framework. It consists of an independent high-level abstraction layer for database systems completely written in C.

This component allows for a lower level database manipulation than using traditional models.

Database Adapters

This component makes use of adapters to encapsulate specific database system details. Phalcon uses PDO to connect to databases. The following database engines are supported:

Clase Descripción
Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Mysql Es el sistema de gestión de bases de datos relacionales (RDBMS) más utilizado en el mundo. se ejecuta como un servidor que provee acceso a usuarios a un número de bases de datos
Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Postgresql PostgreSQL es un sistema de base de datos relacional de código abierto muy potente. Tiene más de 15 años de desarrollo activo y una arquitectura probada que se ha ganado una sólida reputación por la fiabilidad, la integridad y exactitud de los datos.
Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Sqlite SQLite es una biblioteca de software que implementa un motor de base de datos SQL transaccional independiente, sin servidor, sin configuración

Factory

Loads PDO Adapter class using adapter option. Por ejemplo:

<?php

use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Factory;

$options = [
    'host'     => 'localhost',
    'dbname'   => 'blog',
    'port'     => 3306,
    'username' => 'sigma',
    'password' => 'secret',
    'adapter'  => 'mysql',
];

$db = Factory::load($options);

Implementando sus propios adaptadores

The Phalcon\Db\AdapterInterface interface must be implemented in order to create your own database adapters or extend the existing ones.

Database Dialects

Phalcon encapsulates the specific details of each database engine in dialects. Those provide common functions and SQL generator to the adapters.

Clase Descripción
Phalcon\Db\Dialect\Mysql Dialecto específico SQL para base de datos MySQL
Phalcon\Db\Dialect\Postgresql Dialecto específico SQL para base de datos PostgreSQL
Phalcon\Db\Dialect\Sqlite Dialecto específico SQL para base de datos de SQLite

Implementing your own dialects

The Phalcon\Db\DialectInterface interface must be implemented in order to create your own database dialects or extend the existing ones. You can also enhance your current dialect by adding more commands/methods that PHQL will understand.

For instance when using the MySQL adapter, you might want to allow PHQL to recognize the MATCH ... AGAINST ... syntax. We associate that syntax with MATCH_AGAINST

We instantiate the dialect. We add the custom function so that PHQL understands what to do when it finds it during the parsing process. In the example below, we register a new custom function called MATCH_AGAINST. After that all we have to do is add the customized dialect object to our connection.

<?php

use Phalcon\Db\Dialect\MySQL as SqlDialect;
use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\MySQL as Connection;

$dialect = new SqlDialect();

$dialect->registerCustomFunction(
    'MATCH_AGAINST',
    function($dialect, $expression) {
        $arguments = $expression['arguments'];
        return sprintf(
            " MATCH (%s) AGAINST (%)",
            $dialect->getSqlExpression($arguments[0]),
            $dialect->getSqlExpression($arguments[1])
         );
    }
);

$connection = new Connection(
    [
        "host"          => "localhost",
        "username"      => "root",
        "password"      => "",
        "dbname"        => "test",
        "dialectClass"  => $dialect
    ]
);

We can now use this new function in PHQL, which in turn will translate it to the proper SQL syntax:

$phql = "
  SELECT *
  FROM   Posts
  WHERE  MATCH_AGAINST(title, :pattern:)";

$posts = $modelsManager->executeQuery($phql, ['pattern' => $pattern]);

Connecting to Databases

To create a connection it’s necessary instantiate the adapter class. It only requires an array with the connection parameters. The example below shows how to create a connection passing both required and optional parameters:

MySQL Required elements
<?php

$config = [
    'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
    'username' => 'mike',
    'password' => 'sigma',
    'dbname'   => 'test_db',
];
MySQL Optional
$config['persistent'] = false;
MySQL Create a connection
$connection = new \Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Mysql($config);
PostgreSQL Required elements
<?php

$config = [
    'host'     => 'localhost',
    'username' => 'postgres',
    'password' => 'secret1',
    'dbname'   => 'template',
];
PostgreSQL Optional
$config['schema'] = 'public';
PostgreSQL Create a connection
$connection = new \Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Postgresql($config);
SQLite Required elements
<?php

$config = [
    'dbname' => '/path/to/database.db',
];
SQLite Create a connection
$connection = new \Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Sqlite($config);

Setting up additional PDO options

You can set PDO options at connection time by passing the parameters options:

<?php

$connection = new \Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Mysql(
    [
        'host'     => 'localhost',
        'username' => 'root',
        'password' => 'sigma',
        'dbname'   => 'test_db',
        'options'  => [
            PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => "SET NAMES 'UTF8'",
            PDO::ATTR_CASE               => PDO::CASE_LOWER,
        ]
    ]
);

Conexión usando Factory

You can also use a simple ini file to configure/connect your db service to your database.

[database]
host = TEST_DB_MYSQL_HOST
username = TEST_DB_MYSQL_USER
password = TEST_DB_MYSQL_PASSWD
dbname = TEST_DB_MYSQL_NAME
port = TEST_DB_MYSQL_PORT
charset = TEST_DB_MYSQL_CHARSET
adapter = mysql
<?php

use Phalcon\Config\Adapter\Ini;
use Phalcon\Di;
use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Factory;

$di = new Di();
$config = new Ini('config.ini');

$di->set('config', $config);

$di->set(
    'db', 
    function () {
        return Factory::load($this->config->database);
    }
);

The above will return the correct database instance and also has the advantage that you can change the connection credentials or even the database adapter without changing a single line of code in your application.

Finding Rows

Phalcon\Db provides several methods to query rows from tables. The specific SQL syntax of the target database engine is required in this case:

<?php

$sql = 'SELECT id, name FROM robots ORDER BY name';

// Send a SQL statement to the database system
$result = $connection->query($sql);

// Print each robot name
while ($robot = $result->fetch()) {
   echo $robot['name'];
}

// Get all rows in an array
$robots = $connection->fetchAll($sql);
foreach ($robots as $robot) {
   echo $robot['name'];
}

// Get only the first row
$robot = $connection->fetchOne($sql);

By default these calls create arrays with both associative and numeric indexes. You can change this behavior by using Phalcon\Db\Result::setFetchMode(). This method receives a constant, defining which kind of index is required.

Constante Descripción
Phalcon\Db::FETCH_NUM Devuelve un array con índices numéricos
Phalcon\Db::FETCH_ASSOC Devuelve un array con índices asociativos
Phalcon\Db::FETCH_BOTH Devuelve un array con índices asociativos y numéricos
Phalcon\Db::FETCH_OBJ Devolver un objeto en lugar de un array
<?php

$sql = 'SELECT id, name FROM robots ORDER BY name';
$result = $connection->query($sql);

$result->setFetchMode(Phalcon\Db::FETCH_NUM);
while ($robot = $result->fetch()) {
   echo $robot[0];
}

The Phalcon\Db::query() returns an instance of Phalcon\Db\Result\Pdo. These objects encapsulate all the functionality related to the returned resultset i.e. traversing, seeking specific records, count etc.

<?php

$sql = 'SELECT id, name FROM robots';
$result = $connection->query($sql);

// Traverse the resultset
while ($robot = $result->fetch()) {
   echo $robot['name'];
}

// Seek to the third row
$result->seek(2);
$robot = $result->fetch();

// Count the resultset
echo $result->numRows();

Binding Parameters

Bound parameters is also supported in Phalcon\Db. Although there is a minimal performance impact by using bound parameters, you are encouraged to use this methodology so as to eliminate the possibility of your code being subject to SQL injection attacks. Both string and positional placeholders are supported. El enlazado de parámetros se hace simplemente de la siguiente manera:

<?php

// Binding with numeric placeholders
$sql    = 'SELECT * FROM robots WHERE name = ? ORDER BY name';
$result = $connection->query(
    $sql,
    [
        'Wall-E',
    ]
);

// Binding with named placeholders
$sql     = 'INSERT INTO `robots`(name`, year) VALUES (:name, :year)';
$success = $connection->query(
    $sql,
    [
        'name' => 'Astro Boy',
        'year' => 1952,
    ]
);

When using numeric placeholders, you will need to define them as integers i.e. 1 or 2. In this case ‘1’ or ‘2’ are considered strings and not numbers, so the placeholder could not be successfully replaced. With any adapter data are automatically escaped using PDO Quote.

This function takes into account the connection charset, so its recommended to define the correct charset in the connection parameters or in your database server configuration, as a wrong charset will produce undesired effects when storing or retrieving data.

Also, you can pass your parameters directly to the execute or query methods. In this case bound parameters are directly passed to PDO:

<?php

// Binding with PDO placeholders
$sql    = 'SELECT * FROM robots WHERE name = ? ORDER BY name';
$result = $connection->query(
    $sql,
    [
        1 => 'Wall-E',
    ]
);

Marcadores con tipo de dato

Placeholders allowed you to bind parameters to avoid SQL injections:

<?php

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots WHERE id > :id:";

$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery($phql, ['id' => 100]);

However, some database systems require additional actions when using placeholders such as specifying the type of the bound parameter:

<?php

use Phalcon\Db\Column;

// ...

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots LIMIT :number:";
$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery(
    $phql,
    ['number' => 10],
    Column::BIND_PARAM_INT
);

You can use typed placeholders in your parameters, instead of specifying the bind type in executeQuery():

<?php

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots LIMIT {number:int}";
$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery(
    $phql,
    ['number' => 10]
);

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots WHERE name <> {name:str}";
$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery(
    $phql,
    ['name' => $name]
);

You can also omit the type if you don’t need to specify it:

<?php

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots WHERE name <> {name}";
$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery(
    $phql,
    ['name' => $name]
);

Typed placeholders are also more powerful, since we can now bind a static array without having to pass each element independently as a placeholder:

<?php

$phql = "SELECT * FROM Store\Robots WHERE id IN ({ids:array})";
$robots = $this->modelsManager->executeQuery(
    $phql,
    ['ids' => [1, 2, 3, 4]]
);

The following types are available:

Tipo de enlace Constante de tipo de enlace Ejemplo
str Column::BIND_PARAM_STR {name:str}
int Column::BIND_PARAM_INT {number:int}
double Column::BIND_PARAM_DECIMAL {price:double}
bool Column::BIND_PARAM_BOOL {enabled:bool}
blob Column::BIND_PARAM_BLOB {image:blob}
null Column::BIND_PARAM_NULL {exists:null}
array Array de Column::BIND_PARAM_STR {codes:array}
array-str Array de Column::BIND_PARAM_STR {names:array-str}
array-int Array de Column::BIND_PARAM_INT {flags:array-int}

Moldear valores de parámetros enlazados

By default, bound parameters aren’t casted in the PHP userland to the specified bind types, this option allows you to make Phalcon cast values before bind them with PDO. A classic situation when this problem raises is passing a string in a LIMIT/OFFSET placeholder:

<?php

$number = '100';
$robots = $modelsManager->executeQuery(
    'SELECT * FROM Some\Robots LIMIT {number:int}',
    ['number' => $number]
);

This causes the following exception:

Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'PDOException' with message 'SQLSTATE[42000]:
Syntax error or access violation: 1064 You have an error in your SQL syntax;
check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right
syntax to use near ''100'' at line 1' in /Users/scott/demo.php:78

This happens because 100 is a string variable. It is easily fixable by casting the value to integer first:

<?php

$number = '100';
$robots = $modelsManager->executeQuery(
    'SELECT * FROM Some\Robots LIMIT {number:int}',
    ['number' => (int) $number]
);

However this solution requires that the developer pays special attention about how bound parameters are passed and their types. To make this task easier and avoid unexpected exceptions you can instruct Phalcon to do this casting for you:

<?php

\Phalcon\Db::setup(['forceCasting' => true]);

The following actions are performed according to the bind type specified:

Tipo de enlace Action
Column::BIND_PARAM_STR Convertir el valor como una cadena PHP nativa
Column::BIND_PARAM_INT Convertir el valor como un número entero PHP nativo
Column::BIND_PARAM_BOOL Convertir el valor como un valor booleano PHP nativo
Column::BIND_PARAM_DECIMAL Convertir el valor como un número doble PHP nativo

Moldeado en Hidratación

Values returned from the database system are always represented as string values by PDO, no matter if the value belongs to a numerical or boolean type column. This happens because some column types cannot be represented with its corresponding PHP native types due to their size limitations. For instance, a BIGINT in MySQL can store large integer numbers that cannot be represented as a 32bit integer in PHP. Because of that, PDO and the ORM by default, make the safe decision of leaving all values as strings.

You can set up the ORM to automatically cast those types considered safe to their corresponding PHP native types:

<?php

\Phalcon\Mvc\Model::setup(['castOnHydrate' => true]);

This way you can use strict operators or make assumptions about the type of variables:

<?php

$robot = Robots::findFirst();
if (11 === $robot->id) {
    echo $robot->name;
}

Inserting/Updating/Deleting Rows

To insert, update or delete rows, you can use raw SQL or use the preset functions provided by the class:

<?php

// Insertando datos con instrucciones SQL en bruto
$sql     = 'INSERT INTO `robots`(`name`, `year`) VALUES ('Astro Boy', 1952)';
$success = $connection->execute($sql);

// Con marcadores
$sql     = 'INSERT INTO `robots`(`name`, `year`) VALUES (?, ?)';
$success = $connection->execute(
    $sql,
    [
        'Astro Boy',
        1952,
    ]
);

// Generando dinámicamente el SQL necesario
$success = $connection->insert(
    'robots',
    [
        'Astro Boy',
        1952,
    ],
    [
        'name',
        'year',
    ],
);

// Generando dinámicamente el SQL necesario (otra sintaxis)
$success = $connection->insertAsDict(
    'robots',
    [
        'name' => 'Astro Boy',
        'year' => 1952,
    ]
);

// Actualizando datos con instrucciones SQL en crudo
$sql     = 'UPDATE `robots` SET `name` = 'Astro boy' WHERE `id` = 101';
$success = $connection->execute($sql);

// Con marcadores
$sql     = 'UPDATE `robots` SET `name` = ? WHERE `id` = ?';
$success = $connection->execute(
    $sql,
    [
        'Astro Boy',
        101,
    ]
);

// Generando dinámicamente el SQL necesario
$success = $connection->update(
    'robots',
    [
        'name',
    ],
    [
        'New Astro Boy',
    ],
    'id = 101' // Advertencia! En este caso los valores no son escapados
);

// Generando dinámicamente el SQL necesario (otra sintaxis)
$success = $connection->updateAsDict(
    'robots',
    [
        'name' => 'New Astro Boy',
    ],
    'id = 101' // ¡Advertencia! En este caso los valores no son escapados
);

// Con condiciones de escape
$success = $connection->update(
    'robots',
    [
        'name',
    ],
    [
        'New Astro Boy',
    ],
    [
        'conditions' => 'id = ?',
        'bind'       => [101],
        'bindTypes'  => [PDO::PARAM_INT], // Parámetro opcional
    ]
);
$success = $connection->updateAsDict(
    'robots',
    [
        'name' => 'New Astro Boy',
    ],
    [
        'conditions' => 'id = ?',
        'bind'       => [101],
        'bindTypes'  => [PDO::PARAM_INT], // Parámetro opcional
    ]
);

// Borrando datos con instrucciones SQL en crudo
$sql     = 'DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 101';
$success = $connection->execute($sql);

// Con marcadores
$sql     = 'DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = ?';
$success = $connection->execute($sql, [101]);

// Generando dinámicamente el SQL necesario
$success = $connection->delete(
    'robots',
    'id = ?',
    [
        101,
    ]
);

Transactions and Nested Transactions

Working with transactions is supported as it is with PDO. Perform data manipulation inside transactions often increase the performance on most database systems:

<?php

try {
    // Start a transaction
    $connection->begin();

    // Execute some SQL statements
    $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 101');
    $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 102');
    $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 103');

    // Commit if everything goes well
    $connection->commit();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    // An exception has occurred rollback the transaction
    $connection->rollback();
}

In addition to standard transactions, Phalcon\Db provides built-in support for nested transactions (if the database system used supports them). When you call begin() for a second time a nested transaction is created:

<?php

try {
    // Iniciar una transacción
    $connection->begin();

    // Ejecutar algunas instrucciones SQL
    $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 101');

    try {
        // Iniciar una transacción anindada
        $connection->begin();

        // Ejecutar estas instrucciones SQL en una transacción anidada
        $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 102');
        $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 103');

        // Crear un punto de guardado
        $connection->commit();
    } catch (Exception $e) {
        // Ocurrió un error, liberar la transacción anindada
        $connection->rollback();
    }

    // Continuar ejecutando más instrucciones SQL
    $connection->execute('DELETE `robots` WHERE `id` = 104');

    // Confirmar si todo salio bien
    $connection->commit();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    // Ocurrió un error, deshacemos la transacción
    $connection->rollback();
}

Database Events

Phalcon\Db is able to send events to a EventsManager if it’s present. Algunos eventos cuando se devuelva false podrían detener la operación activa. Son soportados los siguientes eventos:

Nombre de evento Disparado ¿Detiene la operación?
afterConnect After a successfully connection to a database system No
beforeQuery Before send a SQL statement to the database system Si
afterQuery After send a SQL statement to database system No
beforeDisconnect Before close a temporal database connection No
beginTransaction Before a transaction is going to be started No
rollbackTransaction Before a transaction is rollbacked No
commitTransaction Before a transaction is committed No

Bind an EventsManager to a connection is simple, Phalcon\Db will trigger the events with the type db:

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Manager as EventsManager;
use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Mysql as Connection;

$eventsManager = new EventsManager();

// Escuchar todos los eventos de la base de datos
$eventsManager->attach('db', $dbListener);

$connection = new Connection(
    [
        'host'     => 'localhost',
        'username' => 'root',
        'password' => 'secret',
        'dbname'   => 'invo',
    ]
);

// Asignar el gestor de eventos a la instancia del adaptador de base de datos
$connection->setEventsManager($eventsManager);

Stop SQL operations are very useful if for example you want to implement some last-resource SQL injector checker:

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Event;

$eventsManager->attach(
    'db:beforeQuery',
    function (Event $event, $connection) {
        $sql = $connection->getSQLStatement();

        // Buscar palabras maliciosas en sentencias SQL
        if (preg_match('/DROP|ALTER/i', $sql)) {
            // Las operaciones DROP/ALTER no están permitidas en la aplicación
            // ¡Esto debe ser una inyección SQL!
            return false;
        }

        // Todo bien
        return true;
    }
);

Profiling SQL Statements

Phalcon\Db includes a profiling component called Phalcon\Db\Profiler, that is used to analyze the performance of database operations so as to diagnose performance problems and discover bottlenecks.

Database profiling is really easy With Phalcon\Db\Profiler:

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Event;
use Phalcon\Events\Manager as EventsManager;
use Phalcon\Db\Profiler as DbProfiler;

$eventsManager = new EventsManager();

$profiler = new DbProfiler();

// Escuchar todos los eventos de la base de datos
$eventsManager->attach(
    'db',
    function (Event $event, $connection) use ($profiler) {
        if ($event->getType() === 'beforeQuery') {
            $sql = $connection->getSQLStatement();

            // Iniciar el perfil con la conexión activa
            $profiler->startProfile($sql);
        }

        if ($event->getType() === 'afterQuery') {
            // Detener el perfil activo
            $profiler->stopProfile();
        }
    }
);

// Asignar el gestor de eventos a la conexión
$connection->setEventsManager($eventsManager);

$sql = 'SELECT buyer_name, quantity, product_name '
     . 'FROM buyers '
     . 'LEFT JOIN products ON buyers.pid = products.id';

// Ejecutar la instrucción SQL
$connection->query($sql);

// Obtener el último perfil del perfilador
$profile = $profiler->getLastProfile();

echo 'Instrucción SQL: ', $profile->getSQLStatement(), "\n";
echo 'Tiempo de inicio: ', $profile->getInitialTime(), "\n";
echo 'Tiempo de final: ', $profile->getFinalTime(), "\n";
echo 'Tiempo total: ', $profile->getTotalElapsedSeconds(), "\n";

You can also create your own profile class based on Phalcon\Db\Profiler to record real time statistics of the statements sent to the database system:

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Manager as EventsManager;
use Phalcon\Db\Profiler as Profiler;
use Phalcon\Db\Profiler\Item as Item;

class DbProfiler extends Profiler
{
    /**
     * Ejecutado antes de enviar la instrucción SQL al servidor de base de datos
     */
    public function beforeStartProfile(Item $profile)
    {
        echo $profile->getSQLStatement();
    }

    /**
     * Ejecutado después de enviar la instrucción SQL al servidor de base de datos
     */
    public function afterEndProfile(Item $profile)
    {
        echo $profile->getTotalElapsedSeconds();
    }
}

// Crear un gestor de eventos
$eventsManager = new EventsManager();

// Crear un perfil
$dbProfiler = new DbProfiler();

// Adjuntar el perfil a todos los eventos de la base de datos
$eventsManager->attach('db', $dbProfiler);

Logging SQL Statements

Using high-level abstraction components such as Phalcon\Db to access a database, it is difficult to understand which statements are sent to the database system. Phalcon\Logger interacts with Phalcon\Db, providing logging capabilities on the database abstraction layer.

<?php

use Phalcon\Logger;
use Phalcon\Events\Event;
use Phalcon\Events\Manager as EventsManager;
use Phalcon\Logger\Adapter\File as FileLogger;

$eventsManager = new EventsManager();

$logger = new FileLogger('app/logs/db.log');

$eventsManager->attach(
    'db:beforeQuery',
    function (Event $event, $connection) use ($logger) {
        $sql = $connection->getSQLStatement();

        $logger->log($sql, Logger::INFO);
    }
);

// Assign the eventsManager to the db adapter instance
$connection->setEventsManager($eventsManager);

// Execute some SQL statement
$connection->insert(
    'products',
    [
        'Hot pepper',
        3.50,
    ],
    [
        'name',
        'price',
    ]
);

As above, the file app/logs/db.log will contain something like this:

[Sun, 29 Apr 12 22:35:26 -0500][DEBUG][Resource Id #77] INSERT INTO products
(name, price) VALUES ('Hot pepper', 3.50)

Implementing your own Logger

You can implement your own logger class for database queries, by creating a class that implements a single method called log. The method needs to accept a string as the first argument. You can then pass your logging object to Phalcon\Db::setLogger(), and from then on any SQL statement executed will call that method to log the results.

Describing Tables/Views

Phalcon\Db also provides methods to retrieve detailed information about tables and views:

<?php

// Get tables on the test_db database
$tables = $connection->listTables('test_db');

// Is there a table 'robots' in the database?
$exists = $connection->tableExists('robots');

// Get name, data types and special features of 'robots' fields
$fields = $connection->describeColumns('robots');
foreach ($fields as $field) {
    echo 'Column Type: ', $field['Type'];
}

// Get indexes on the 'robots' table
$indexes = $connection->describeIndexes('robots');
foreach ($indexes as $index) {
    print_r(
        $index->getColumns()
    );
}

// Get foreign keys on the 'robots' table
$references = $connection->describeReferences('robots');
foreach ($references as $reference) {
    // Print referenced columns
    print_r(
        $reference->getReferencedColumns()
    );
}

A table description is very similar to the MySQL DESCRIBE command, it contains the following information:

Field Tipo Key Null
Field’s name Column Type Is the column part of the primary key or an index? Does the column allow null values?

Methods to get information about views are also implemented for every supported database system:

<?php

// Get views on the test_db database
$tables = $connection->listViews('test_db');

// Is there a view 'robots' in the database?
$exists = $connection->viewExists('robots');

Creating/Altering/Dropping Tables

Different database systems (MySQL, Postgresql etc.) offer the ability to create, alter or drop tables with the use of commands such as CREATE, ALTER or DROP. The SQL syntax differs based on which database system is used. Phalcon\Db offers a unified interface to alter tables, without the need to differentiate the SQL syntax based on the target storage system.

Creating Tables

The following example shows how to create a table:

<?php

use \Phalcon\Db\Column as Column;

$connection->createTable(
    'robots',
    null,
    [
       'columns' => [
            new Column(
                'id',
                [
                    'type'          => Column::TYPE_INTEGER,
                    'size'          => 10,
                    'notNull'       => true,
                    'autoIncrement' => true,
                    'primary'       => true,
                ]
            ),
            new Column(
                'name',
                [
                    'type'    => Column::TYPE_VARCHAR,
                    'size'    => 70,
                    'notNull' => true,
                ]
            ),
            new Column(
                'year',
                [
                    'type'    => Column::TYPE_INTEGER,
                    'size'    => 11,
                    'notNull' => true,
                ]
            ),
        ]
    ]
);

Phalcon\Db::createTable() accepts an associative array describing the table. Columns are defined with the class Phalcon\Db\Column. The table below shows the options available to define a column:

Opción Descripción Opcional
type Column type. Must be a Phalcon\Db\Column constant (see below for a list) No
primary True if the column is part of the table’s primary key Si
size Some type of columns like VARCHAR or INTEGER may have a specific size Si
scale DECIMAL or NUMBER columns may be have a scale to specify how many decimals should be stored Si
unsigned INTEGER columns may be signed or unsigned. This option does not apply to other types of columns Si
notNull ¿La columna puede almacenar valores nulos? Si
default Default value (when used with 'notNull' => true). Si
autoIncrement With this attribute column will filled automatically with an auto-increment integer. Only one column in the table can have this attribute. Si
bind One of the BIND_TYPE_* constants telling how the column must be bound before save it Si
first La columna debe colocarse en primera posición en el orden de columnas Si
after La columna debe colocarse después de la columna indicada Si

Phalcon\Db supports the following database column types:

  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_INTEGER
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_DATE
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_VARCHAR
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_DECIMAL
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_DATETIME
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_CHAR
  • Phalcon\Db\Column::TYPE_TEXT

The associative array passed in Phalcon\Db::createTable() can have the possible keys:

Índice Descripción Opcional
columns An array with a set of table columns defined with Phalcon\Db\Column No
indexes An array with a set of table indexes defined with Phalcon\Db\Index Si
references An array with a set of table references (foreign keys) defined with Phalcon\Db\Reference Si
options An array with a set of table creation options. These options often relate to the database system in which the migration was generated. Si

Altering Tables

As your application grows, you might need to alter your database, as part of a refactoring or adding new features. Not all database systems allow to modify existing columns or add columns between two existing ones. Phalcon\Db is limited by these constraints.

<?php

use Phalcon\Db\Column as Column;

// Adding a new column
$connection->addColumn(
    'robots',
    null,
    new Column(
        'robot_type',
        [
            'type'    => Column::TYPE_VARCHAR,
            'size'    => 32,
            'notNull' => true,
            'after'   => 'name',
        ]
    )
);

// Modifying an existing column
$connection->modifyColumn(
    'robots',
    null,
    new Column(
        'name',
        [
            'type'    => Column::TYPE_VARCHAR,
            'size'    => 40,
            'notNull' => true,
        ]
    )
);

// Deleting the column 'name'
$connection->dropColumn(
    'robots',
    null,
    'name'
);

Dropping Tables

To drop an existing table from the current database, use the dropTable method. To drop an table from custom database, use second parameter describes database name. Examples on dropping tables:

<?php

// Borrar la tabla 'robot' desde la base de datos activa
$connection->dropTable('robots');

// Borrar la tabla 'robot' desde la base de datos 'machines'
$connection->dropTable('robots', 'machines');