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コントローラの使用

The controllers provide a number of methods that are called actions. Actions are methods on a controller that handle requests. By default all public methods on a controller map to actions and are accessible by an URL. Actions are responsible for interpreting the request and creating the response. Usually responses are in the form of a rendered view, but there are other ways to create responses as well.

For instance, when you access an URL like this: http://localhost/blog/posts/show/2012/the-post-title Phalcon by default will decompose each part like this:

Phalcon Directory blog
Controller posts
Action show
Parameter 2012
Parameter the-post-title

In this case, the PostsController will handle this request. There is no a special location to put controllers in an application, they could be loaded using autoloaders, so you’re free to organize your controllers as you need.

Controllers must have the suffix “Controller” while actions the suffix “Action”. A sample of a controller is as follows:

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function showAction($year, $postTitle)
    {

    }

}

Additional URI parameters are defined as action parameters, so that they can be easily accessed using local variables. A controller can optionally extend Phalcon\Mvc\Controller. By doing this, the controller can have easy access to the application services.

Parameters without a default value are handled as required. Setting optional values for parameters is done as usual in PHP:

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function showAction($year=2012, $postTitle='some default title')
    {

    }

}

Parameters are assigned in the same order as they were passed in the route. You can get an arbitrary parameter from its name in the following way:

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function showAction()
    {
        $year = $this->dispatcher->getParam('year');
        $postTitle = $this->dispatcher->getParam('postTitle');
    }

}

Dispatch Loop

The dispatch loop will be executed within the Dispatcher until there are no actions left to be executed. In the above example only one action was executed. Now we’ll see how “forward” can provide a more complex flow of operation in the dispatch loop, by forwarding execution to a different controller/action.

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function showAction($year, $postTitle)
    {
        $this->flash->error("You don't have permission to access this area");

        // Forward flow to another action
        $this->dispatcher->forward(array(
            "controller" => "users",
            "action" => "signin"
        ));
    }

}

If users don’t have permissions to access a certain action then will be forwarded to the Users controller, signin action.

<?php

class UsersController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function signinAction()
    {

    }

}

There is no limit on the “forwards” you can have in your application, so long as they do not result in circular references, at which point your application will halt. If there are no other actions to be dispatched by the dispatch loop, the dispatcher will automatically invoke the view layer of the MVC that is managed by Phalcon\Mvc\View.

コントローラの初期化

Phalcon\Mvc\Controller offers the initialize method, which is executed first, before any action is executed on a controller. The use of the “__construct” method is not recommended.

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public $settings;

    public function initialize()
    {
        $this->settings = array(
            "mySetting" => "value"
        );
    }

    public function saveAction()
    {
        if ($this->settings["mySetting"] == "value") {
            //...
        }
    }

}
Method ‘initialize’ is only called if the event ‘beforeExecuteRoute’ is executed with success. This avoid that application logic in the initializer cannot be executed without authorization.

If you want to execute some initialization logic just after build the controller object you can implement the method ‘onConstruct’:

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function onConstruct()
    {
        //...
    }
}
Be aware that method ‘onConstruct’ is executed even if the action to be executed not exists in the controller or the user does not have access to it (according to custom control access provided by developer).

サービスの注入

If a controller extends Phalcon\Mvc\Controller then it has easy access to the service container in application. For example, if we have registered a service like this:

<?php

$di = new Phalcon\DI();

$di->set('storage', function() {
    return new Storage('/some/directory');
}, true);

Then, we can access to that service in several ways:

<?php

class FilesController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function saveAction()
    {

        //Injecting the service by just accessing the property with the same name
        $this->storage->save('/some/file');

        //Accessing the service from the DI
        $this->di->get('storage')->save('/some/file');

        //Another way to access the service using the magic getter
        $this->di->getStorage()->save('/some/file');

        //Another way to access the service using the magic getter
        $this->getDi()->getStorage()->save('/some/file');

        //Using the array-syntax
        $this->di['storage']->save('/some/file');
    }

}

If you’re using Phalcon as a full-stack framework, you can read the services provided by default in the framework.

リクエストとレスポンス

Assuming that the framework provides a set of pre-registered services. We explain how to interact with the HTTP environment. The “request” service contains an instance of Phalcon\Http\Request and the “response” contains a Phalcon\Http\Response representing what is going to be sent back to the client.

<?php

class PostsController extends Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function saveAction()
    {
        // Check if request has made with POST
        if ($this->request->isPost() == true) {
            // Access POST data
            $customerName = $this->request->getPost("name");
            $customerBorn = $this->request->getPost("born");
        }
    }

}

The response object is not usually used directly, but is built up before the execution of the action, sometimes - like in an afterDispatch event - it can be useful to access the response directly:

<?php

class PostsController extends Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {

    }

    public function notFoundAction()
    {
        // Send a HTTP 404 response header
        $this->response->setStatusCode(404, "Not Found");
    }

}

Learn more about the HTTP environment in their dedicated articles request and response.

セッションデータ

Sessions help us maintain persistent data between requests. You could access a Phalcon\Session\Bag from any controller to encapsulate data that need to be persistent.

<?php

class UserController extends Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {
        $this->persistent->name = "Michael";
    }

    public function welcomeAction()
    {
        echo "Welcome, ", $this->persistent->name;
    }

}

Using Services as Controllers

Services may act as controllers, controllers classes are always requested from the services container. Accordingly, any other class registered with its name can easily replace a controller:

<?php

//Register a controller as a service
$di->set('IndexController', function() {
    $component = new Component();
    return $component;
});

//Register a namespaced controller as a service
$di->set('Backend\Controllers\IndexController', function() {
    $component = new Component();
    return $component;
});

ベース・コントローラの作成

Some application features like access control lists, translation, cache, and template engines are often common to many controllers. In cases like these the creation of a “base controller” is encouraged to ensure your code stays DRY. A base controller is simply a class that extends the Phalcon\Mvc\Controller and encapsulates the common functionality that all controllers must have. In turn, your controllers extend the “base controller” and have access to the common functionality.

This class could be located anywhere, but for organizational conventions we recommend it to be in the controllers folder, e.g. apps/controllers/ControllerBase.php. We may require this file directly in the bootstrap file or cause to be loaded using any autoloader:

<?php

require "../app/controllers/ControllerBase.php";

The implementation of common components (actions, methods, properties etc.) resides in this file:

<?php

class ControllerBase extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

  /**
   * This action is available for multiple controllers
   */
  public function someAction()
  {

  }

}

Any other controller now inherits from ControllerBase, automatically gaining access to the common components (discussed above):

<?php

class UsersController extends ControllerBase
{

}

コントローラのイベント

Controllers automatically act as listeners for dispatcher events, implementing methods with those event names allow you to implement hook points before/after the actions are executed:

<?php

class PostsController extends \Phalcon\Mvc\Controller
{

    public function beforeExecuteRoute($dispatcher)
    {
        // This is executed before every found action
        if ($dispatcher->getActionName() == 'save') {

            $this->flash->error("You don't have permission to save posts");

            $this->dispatcher->forward(array(
                'controller' => 'home',
                'action' => 'index'
            ));

            return false;
        }
    }

    public function afterExecuteRoute($dispatcher)
    {
        // Executed after every found action
    }

}